|Technology Features||CWP’ Hyper Oxidation Process|
|Oxidants Generation||The process generates multi-oxidants, e.g. H2O2, O3, bleach, etc., using a cocktail of mixed metal coatings and electrolytes from the water. There is no need for the injection of salt water.|
|Scale Prevention||Yes. Divalent Cations are precipitated on the cathode surface. The treated effluent does not scale.|
|Flow Rate||There is no limitation on flow rate since all influent is treated through the reactor.|
|Oxidation of Heavy Metals||Yes. Heavy metals, including iron, are oxidized.|
|Automation with Low manpower needs||Yes|
|Treatment and recycling of Flow back and produced water||The process can treat 100% flow back and produced water without any limitations on the TDS for bacteria disinfection, precipitation of scale-causing minerals, and oxidation of heavy metals.|
|Elimination of H2S||Yes|
|Chemicals and Biocides||No|
CWP uses electricity to generate multi-oxidants in the water
- No Chemicals
- No Ozone
- No Chlorine di-oxide
- No Ultrasound
- No UV light
Features of CWP's Technology
- Low Cost
- Modular and Flexible
- Small Footprint
- Low Maintenance
- Broad Utility
Question & Answers
What makes CWP different from other water treatment processes?
CWP’s technology is based on Hyper Oxidation, which generates multi oxidants directly in the effluent using electricity. Coated using our proprietary cocktail of rare-earth metal oxides, electrodes generate many species of oxidants to treat production water for bacteria disinfection, precipitation of scale-causing minerals, and oxidation of heavy metals. Energy companies can treat 100% of their production water and recycle it back to hydraulic fracturing as clean soft brine.
Other advantages of CWP’s technology include the following:
A) The technology is scalable to required flow rates.
B) The systems can be mobile or stationary depending on the circumstances.
C) The process eliminates the need for biocides and scale inhibitors.
How is bacteria disinfection achieved?
CWP’s technology includes a unique combination of mixed metal oxide coated electrodes. During the electrolysis process, these electrodes generate different types of oxidants in the effluent. The primary oxidants are H2O2, O3, OH-, Hypochlorite and Or Hypobromite. These oxidants are utilized to kill bacteria present in the produced and flow backwater. Mostly sulfur-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria, they are detrimental because they cause acidic corrosion. They also generate hydrogen sulfide gas and a slimy mucus which plugs the pores of the formation reducing the output of the well. As per field tests, CWP’s Hyper Oxidation process kills and eliminates bacteria while maintaining the level of disinfectant oxidants to prevent regrowth.
How does the brine softening effect occur in the process?
Produced water and flow backwater mostlycontains mono and divalent cations. Divalent cations are notorious for causing scale in pipes, thus compromising the production of hydrocarbons. In CWP’s Hyper Oxidation Process technologies multiple paddle electrodes with large surface areas are provided for cathodes and anodes. During the electrolysis process, divalent cations (Ca, Ba, Sretc) are precipitated on the cathode surface to create carbonates and sulfates. Once these elements form as particles, i.e. convert from TDS to TSS, they remain attached to the cathode surface. These micro precipitated particles will not form a scale. They will remain in suspension and will not chemically interfere with hydraulic fracturing chemicals. The size of these micro precipitated particles is less than 0.5 microns and will easily pass through any inline filter.
How does CWP quantify that treated water is not scalable?
Since there are no separation processes implemented in the treatment of produced water, the elements present in the effluent before and after the process remain the same; however, their physical and chemical properties are altered during the electro-oxidation process. To validate these changes, both treated and untreated water are studied and observed in a Dynamic tube blocking test rig. In this test, effluent samples are passed through a capillary tube at elevated temperatures. The pressure difference before and after passing through the tube is measured over a given period of time. If the effluent contains scale-causing minerals, the capillary tube will plug and there will be a rise in ΔP (difference in inlet and outlet pressure). When tests are conducted with the actual shale temperatures encountered in the field, treated water from CWP’s Aqua Pulsar or GBW units shows no rise in ΔP..
How does CWP monitor and assure the quality of the treatments?
CWP water treatment systems incorporate various sensors installed at the process inlet and outlet, Salinity, PH, ORP, pressure, etc. The ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) sensor gives comparative data about the quality of the water being processed. It has been observed that with organic loading, the ORP reading tends to show low or negative MV. During the CWP’s hyper-oxidation treatment process, the ORP level of the effluent is raised by oxidizing organic contaminants. The PID loop control system on the units reads ORP data continuously reflecting the quality of water produced during the process. During the operation, samples are also collected for lab analysis to quantify the performance of the process.
How does the CWP treated water interact with chemicals used in the Hydraulic Fracturing process?
Produced water treated using CWP technology has the following distinctive properties.
A) It is sterilized, i.e. bacteria-free.
B) All scale-causing minerals are precipitated making produced water behave like fresh water with no scaling ability. It has a low surface tension and no precipitation reaction with formation water.
C) All heavy metals, such as Fe, are in an oxidized form and do not interfere with fracking chemicals.
D) Disinfectant levels are maintained similar to swimming pool water, making it safe to operate at the frac job site.
E) Treated produced water hydrates the polymer the same as fresh water allowing energy operators to use generic friction reducers on high TDS produced water.
How does the Centrifuge Separator (Inverted Hydro Cyclone) work?
CWP’s unique patent pending, inverted hydro cyclone centrifuge separator is a three-phase separator with controllable G forces. Incoming effluent is spun at 3000 to 5000 RPM using a proprietary impeller in the hydro cyclone. This produces three primary distinctive columns of solid, heavy liquid and lighter liquid (plus Gas). Each separated spinning column is discharged at three different outlets from the machine. Solids are removed at the first hydro cyclone chamber outlet using an automated valve. Heavy phase fluid (water) is removed from the second hydro cyclone chamber outlet. Lighter specific gravity fluid (oil) and gases, which are spinning at the center, are removed from the center of the unit. All three outlets are installed on a single centrifuge machine and plumbed to different tanks for fluid collection.
How are higher flow rates achieved in the Aqua300 Centrifuge Separator?
Each Aqua300 Centrifuge Separator is capable of handling up to a 300 GPM flow rate. For higher flow rate needs, multiple hydro cyclone centrifuge separators can be manifold together.